Thursday, March 12, 2020
Argumentative Essay on Management Argumentative Essay on Management Example Argumentative Essay on Management: In the attempt to better the organizational performance, managers have opted to diversify their scope of managerial systems. Some of the main information systems currently used include the natural system, the open system and the rational systems. The rational system concentrates on the consequences and conditions of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s production and general utilization of information. This managerial approach helps develop a detailed comprehension understanding of the manner in which information regarding accounting reflects and shapes organizational reality through the different methods of its application. The rational system is particularly different from the natural system because it attempts to include the introduction of a given information system both the events before and after capturing the dynamism of the characteristics. Researches done on information systems as used in organizations conclude that rational systems are static. They make an assumption that the all patterns of information applications are a response to the technical or environmental forces operating at that time. A dynamic approach incorporates the evolution of information systems as time goes by. Unlike the open system, the rational systems incorporate both past and present forces which could influence the implementation of a system. The natural approach of managing organization basically takes on board several theories in management. Unlike the other two, this type of approach towards management ensures that the employee values are the key drive in decision making. This concept of management is unique in a number of ways. One of them being that it does not equity human being to machines hence the need for the manager to develop policies that are more accommodative. It also establishes an optimum in the scope of control hence increasing employee motivation. Pay is not the only motivator of the employee hence the diversification of the remuneration package. Natural systems in management are one of the most commonly used forms of managerial and skilled employment approaches under the representative modes. Under this criterion the managementÃ¢â¬â¢s function is conceptualized from a number of other system theories as the organizations strive to attain global recognition of its uniqueness in service delivery. Therefore, management is basically dependent on modeling the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s general identity. A natural system illustrates a parametrized managerial system that is structurally identifiable in case its production which corresponds to two variant parameter values is different from all inputs of a respective natural and dense subset of the overall composition of all admissible organizational inputs. In my opinion the most beneficial information systems are the natural systems. According to Flamholtz (1996), a natural system plays an extensive role in the saving of operational costs. The clarity and simplicity associated to its implementation and comprehension is a clear indicator of the efficiency of the managerial model. For instance, the employees are well motivated, self driven and work independently hence considerably reducing costs that could otherwise be used for supervisions. Similarly, through employee empowerment, the quality of service delivery by the organization is set to increase. In the long run, observing quality in service delivery in a great contribution to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Moreover, the manager benefits in popularizing the organization in terms of quality in performance. One of the most out right benefits is that of enabling the management to perform distinct information process processes necessary for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. These activities include evaluation, monitoring, control and prediction. At this point, the manager should appreciate that not all modeling systems are compatible to every other organization and hence the need to tailor such systems to adequately suit the subject organization. By extension the main determinant of the success of the manager is the ability to adapt, grow and survive in every aspect of managerial consideration. The management function is a direct product of the sound interaction of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and the management system in place (Endres Endres Chowdhury Alam, 2007). The manager benefits from this as the criteria as it offers a ground for effective communications with the employees. Of course there are diverse literature with regard to the managerial science and its respecti ve disciplines. They have different interpretations and definitions on the impacts of managerial systems depending on the organizational operations of different organizations. It will also direct its attention of the considerations of several sources of literature that concern the management function in a given organization. Another benefit of using the natural systems in management is that they help in modelling the organizational environment while at the same time responding to the key influence to the organisations (Gans, 1993). With respect to the human social organization, the natural managerial systems also address the issues of the consequential complexities. Here, the models are responsible for making the simplification of the managerial systems to ably adapt to the surrounding environments. Complexity in this dimension could mean the simplest composition of information that is necessary to comprehensively summarize an organizational process or status. For the concept of identifying structural complexity, this paper will sufficiently identify the benefits that a manager could achieve with the application of natural systems in the organization. In addition, it is clear that the more the system is integral, the higher the performance potential of the system adapting to the environmental determinant s of the organization (Foster Royce Doherty Meehan, 2009). Similarly, natural systems help in shaping the adaptive responses or the entire organization. This way, the manager is set to benefit from the structuring of the organizational behavior across all departments and transactions of the organization (Biilsberry, 1996). The definition of the organizational code of conduct and operation has a great role in the minimization of work place conflicts brought about by lack of clarity in organizational roles. Conflicts are generally a backward pull to the advancement of any organization because of the pollution of the work place environment it also leads to the devaluation of employee motivation. Natural systems of management greatly benefit the organization by increasing the performance of social and economic activities (Winston, 1988). This is achieved through clarity in definition of cultural evolution with reference to the potential capability of the managerial systems in place. The co-occurrence of formal and informal social networks that are inherent in organizations is another consideration. In any organization, sharing of tacit-to-tacit knowledge may be seen in some employee groups but not provocative in others. Therefore, some strong and informal social networks effectively facilitate the transfer of knowledge may embed in other formal structures and it is important to apply random methods of sampling to control organizational variables. Natural systems also tend to provide for a participatory approach towards decision making. There is a notable sense of self drive and self drive amongst the employees since they feel that they own the operational policies. In addition, the forums provided for by these systems go a long way in establishing all potential determinants that could influence the overall managerial system that is in place for any given organization (Kreitner, 2005). This way, the entire organization is involved in the process of decision making. This not only boost the motivation of the employees but also increases their productivity levels due to the fact that they feel they are part of the policy making panel in the organization. Participatory agent-based modeling, institution-based models, preference-based or rules of thumb decision models (experience), heuristic empirical rules, and calibration-based rules and evolutionary programming assumptions are example of natural systems decision making models tha t are empirical in nature and whose substantial efforts could be invested by a manager in organizational mechanisms and structuring of models of decision-making that are process-based to improve the performance of management function. Another benefit that can be tapped from the use of the natural systems is the generalization of individual information and knowledge through sharing of practices to the benefit of organization, and furthermore, to increase organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability. In addition, it is beneficial for the manager to possess the assumption that a knowledge management recommendation on information sharing is potentially positive and necessary (Karl Steven Drozdeck, 1991). Therefore, it is necessary for the manager to delineate between the constituent types of employees needed to employ efficient knowledge sharing strategies for maximum organization gain. In conclusion, this paper has examined all crucial influences that affect the operations of management in public sector organizations. Recently, most accounting systems have continually developed into being viewed as a technique of improving the overall efficiency and productivity of such sector organizations. Most critical-like management dynamics are composed of a curious mix that could be content or discontent, and it is for the same reason that they are constantly linked to the edge of organizational chaos (Ansari Eske, 1987). More precisely, this is a new role carried out by accounting systems in the organizations. Traditionally, accounting for information systems in the organizations was handled primarily for the purposes of fiduciary control. Whether those managerial systems could serve as an enhancement of efficiency in the organizations or not was not adequately addressed. Before management can be intensely and closely involved in the core functioning of the organizations, it is necessary to distinguish the specific results posed by the introduction of the natural managerial approach to the efficiency, cost and several other basic activities within the organizations based on the past. can write an argumentative essay on any Management topic. Our professional essay writers will help with writing your argumentative paper starting at $12/page.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Should gay marriage be legal - Essay Example One thing, which needs to be considered is that the number of gays living in the United States is very less as compared to the people who like to have relationship with the opposite gender. Therefore, giving freedom to such people to develop relationships with the same gender does not make a big difference. From the perspective of gays, some of the reasons that support gay marriages include strengthening of social concept of marriage, sexual freedom, and freedom of choice. Gay marriage has least concern with the morality since it promotes justice, freedom, and equality. If a person wants to spend his life with a person belonging to the same gender, no one should oppose it because every person has the right to do whatever he wants to do as long as his actions do not affect the rights of any other person. Therefore, gay marriages should be held legal because it does not affect the rights of others. Warren, Patrick. Ã¢â¬Å"Same Sex Couples Can Avoid Unnecessary Problems By Getting These Documents In Order Now.Ã¢â¬ Ezinearticles.com, 03 Aug. 2011. Web. 23 Sep. 2011.
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Six Essential Elements of Geography - Essay Example Physical systems Ã¢â¬â this element of geography seeks to study physical processes such as volcanoes, glaciers, climate, and how they shape the earth. In addition, it seeks to study the interrelationships among plant and animal life and their natural environment that sustain life. Environment and the society Ã¢â¬â this element studies the impacts of human activities on the environment. In addition, geographers are also interested in knowing how humans use the environment and how the environment influences peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. The uses of geography Ã¢â¬â this element show the importance of acquiring knowledge on geography. Geography is essential to humans in that it helps them understand the future as well as the past. This knowledge enables geographers to understand better the relationships between the environment, people and places (Swamson 56). The teacher can apply the first essential element of geography in describing the absolute or relative location of a particular object. For example, the teacher can inform the students that the Geographic information centre is located at 805 Sherbrooke Street West (absolute location) or Sherbrook Street West near the Catholic Church (relative location). The second element (places and regions) is applicable in distinguishing various parts of the world. For example, the teacher can use this element to explain the difference between the tropical regions and temperate zones. The teacher can apply the unique element of physical system by explaining to students the role played by natural phenomenon such as volcanoes, movement of glaciers and hurricanes. For example, volcanoes can produce rich soils that can support farming. On the flip side, volcanoes can cause destruction of natural vegetation and displace people. The teacher can apply human systems in explaining human settlements. For example, the teacher can be able to explain why there are so many
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Comparative Between Confucius and Daoism Essay Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)111 Please cite as Low K. C. P. (2011) Ã¢â¬ËConfucianism Versus TaoismÃ¢â¬â¢, Conflict Resolution Negotiation Journal, Volume 2011, Issue 4, p. 111 127 Confucianism Versus Taoism Prof. Dr. Patrick Low Kim Cheng Ph. D. Chartered Marketer, Certified MBTI Administrator, Certified Behavioral Consultant/ Universiti Brunei Darussalam; Associate, University of South Australia About the Author Prof. Dr. Patrick Low Kim Cheng, Ph. D. (South Australia), Chartered Marketer, Certified MBTI Administrator, Certified Behavioral Consultant (IML, USA), brings with him more than 20 years of combined experience from sectors as diverse as the electronics, civil service, academia, banking, human resource development and consulting. His MNC and local corporate clients from ASEAN, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Bangladesh and Kazakhstan are in manufacturing, electronics, IT, retail, engineering services, hospitals, hotels, banks financial institutions as well as the public sector. The once Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Business, Universiti of Malaya (Jan to Feb 2007), Prof. Dr. Low was the Deputy Dean, Postgraduate Studies Research, teaching in Universiti Brunei Darussalam (2009). He teaches the graduate students/ MBA in Organisational Behavior, Managing Negotiations, Leadership and Change Management, and the undergraduates in Leadership Basics, Challenging Leadership, Business and Society, Issues in Organizational Leadership, Organization Analysis Design; and Organization Development Change. The former Associate Dean, Director of Career Services and Chair of the Management and Marketing Department of a University in Kazakhstan (2004 to 2006) focuses on human resource management and behavioral skills training covering areas like negotiation/ influencing, leadership and behavioral modification. An academician-practitioner, a prolific author (author of twelve books including bestsellers (Strategic Customer Management, 2006, 2002, 2000 Ã¢â¬â one of BordersÃ¢â¬â¢ top ten in 2001/2, Sales Success, 2006, 2003; Team Success, 2003 and The Power of Relationships, 2001). His most recent books include Successfully Negotiating In Asia (Springer, 2010) and Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=1982271 Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)112 Corporate Culture and Values Ã¢â¬â Perceptions of Corporate Leaders of Cooperatives in Singapore (VDM-Verlag, 2009). A business coach, Prof. Dr. Low is the founder of BusinesscrAFTÃ¢â ¢ Consultancy and he previously served as an Examiner for University of South AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s DBA and Ph. D. candidates (2003 to October 2006); presently, he has been appointed as the supervisor for its DBA candidates. Besides his experience in academia, training and consulting, Prof. Dr. Patrick Low has held positions in regional human resource development (HRD). He has been the Senior Training Manager (Asia Pacific Region) in Standard Chartered Bank where he was responsible for regional management training and development, marketing of HRD services and management succession. He can be contacted at [emailprotected] com Confucianism Versus Taoism Abstract: In this paper, the practitioner-academician makes comparisons and contrasts between the two great philosophical bodies (or oldest religious traditions) of China, that is, Confucianism and Taoism. Among other things, the key commonalities of Confucianism and Taoism include being in pursuit of the Tao, close to nature and harmony, and taking the right actions are critical than just the belief(s). The key differences are also examined here, and these, among other things, include human living and spirituality, and filial piety and nature as well as rites and beyond rites. 1 Introduction Confucianism and Taoism do not have a specific founder or date of founding, even though one of them (Confucianism) appears to be named after an individual, KÃ¢â¬â¢ung Fu Tzu or Confucius in English. Confucius was born in 551 BC in China in what is presently Shantung Province. He lived during the Zhou dynasty, known for its ethical laxity. For Taoism, its texts include the Tao de ching (The Way of Power) which is believed to have been written by Lao Tzu. The text describes the nature of life, the way to peace and how a ruler should lead his life. The Chuang Tzu contains additional teachings of Taoism. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=1982271 Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)113 1. 1 PaperÃ¢â¬â¢s Aim And Objectives The aim and objectives of the paper are to make comparisons and examine the contrasts between the two great philosophical bodies (or oldest religious traditions) in China, that is, Confucianism and Taoism, and with that, it is hoped to logically get a better understanding of the two philosophical bodies. 2 2. 1 Commonalities Of Confucianism And Taoism In Pursuit of the Tao Both show that the non-religious state of existence is unsatisfying and non-harmonious. Instead, both Confucianism and Taoism stress on the pursuit of the Tao, and that the Tao is the ultimate. Similar to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"have more than thou showest, speak less than thou knowestÃ¢â¬ , in Taoism, it is said that those who know do not speak and those who speak do not know. Tao, the first cause, can be roughly translated into English as Ã¢â¬Å"pathÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"the wayÃ¢â¬ , referring to a power which envelops, surrounds and flows through all things, living and non-living. Tao is the Oneness of everything; Ã¢â¬Å"Tao is always without a name and that it is the origin of heaven and earth. Tao can also be said to be the Ã¢â¬Å"AbsoluteÃ¢â¬ that it can be said to be the movement and a stillness without a beginning, Yin and Yang (also known as Tai Chi) are things that can be said to be without a beginningÃ¢â¬ (Cleary 2003, cited in Low and Ang, 2010: 85; Wu, 1990: 1). 2. 2 Close to Nature And Harmony Both Confucianism and Taoism are close to nature, very much reflected in Chinese culture. Most Chinese gates or traditional Chinese gardens display a pair of lions, one male and one female. The female mother lion, usually with its young, represents Mother Nature. From Confucius Ã¢â¬â The Analects, Chapter VII verse 17, we learn that Ã¢â¬Å"The Master used a fishing line but not a cable; attached to a net, he used a corded arrow but not to shoot at roosting birds. Ã¢â¬ Both Taoism and Confucianism believe that the two opposing and complementary forces Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)114 (chi) of yin and yang should be maintained in a harmonious condition no matter what level they are operating on, such as universe, nature, society, or an individual (Li, 1996). Ã¢â¬Å"Everything will be accomplished smoothly in a harmonious family,Ã¢â¬ Confucius encouraged that internal harmony should also be treasured as the highest value within a family, just as it is essential to the smooth functioning of a system at any other level. Both schools preach that humans live in harmony with nature, and such a way is compatible with humankindÃ¢â¬â¢s taking care of nature and the surrounding environment of the communities they live and work (Low and Ang, forthcoming; Low, forthcoming). In Lao TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, the people should be encouraged to embrace simplicity, diminishing self interest and curbing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s desires (Tao Te Ching, Verse 49); in this way, one can then create a peaceful and harmonious environmental attitude towards people and nature, and there is overall happiness between and among all. Detaching ourselves and not getting caught with the great number of things in our mind, we also slow down, pay attention to our breathing, move slowly and deeply, and we reach new understandings about ourselves and the world around us. In Taoism, peace isÃ treasured (Ã¢â¬Å"The best way of conquering an enemy is to win him over by not antagonizing himÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Tao Te Ching, verse 68; Wu, 1990: 101). War is no good and only results in sufferings of the people; rulers need to find and seek peace for his or her people. With harmony, trade, business and profits can be made, and the countries make progress Ã¢â¬â as the Chinese saying goes, Ã¢â¬Å"Harmony grows profitsÃ¢â¬ (Hanyu Pinyin: he chi sen chai). It can thus be said that the Chinese prize harmony above all things. A large part of Chinese literature is based on the idea of harmony (Tao Te Ching Ã¢â¬â McDonald, 2009; Mitchell, 1995; Towler, 2002). For both Confucianism and Taoism, a sage is a person who is in total harmony with their world Ã¢â¬â the world around them as well as the world within them. 2. 3 Wanting to Be Happy And Being Positive Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)115 One of the basic facts of life is that all of us want to be happy. Each of us does not wish to suffer; and yet, suffering is a part of life, just as happiness is. It can be taken that both Confucianism and Taoism, being positive, appear to urge people to pursue happiness. If we are negative, then we spend too much time searching for ways to avoid suffering; indeed so, we will also miss out much of the happiness that is possible in our lives. In Confucianism, with the Rectification of Names and roles fulfilled, a father does the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s role, a mother the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s role, the son the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s role and so on; then there will be harmonious relationships and happiness. If there were peace, harmony and happiness in the family and since a nation is essentially made of families, then the nation would also enjoy peace, harmony and happiness. Confucius also highlighted that having an independent, truly calm, steady, down-to-earth mind and heart that one can avoid being swayed by the rises and falls, gains and loses of life. Free from worries and fears (Confucius Ã¢â¬â The Analects, Chapter XII, verse 4), a person of high integrity and morality (a gentleperson, junzi) would be happy; (s)he would sleep well. In these ways, one can thus be more or less, contented or happy. In Taoism, as in Yin-Yang, it is taken that the seed of suffering is inherent in each moment of happiness. In this way we should remain centered during moments of great happiness. In life, if we build our happiness on simple things like love, friendship, good health, and spirit, we can build a sense of happiness that will endure the challenges and changes that life gives us (Towler, 2002a; http://ancienthistory. mrdonn. org/Taoism. html). Thus, in both Confucianism and Taoism call for people to live happily. 2. 4 Right Actions Are Critical Both generally see religious beliefs as having less importance than religious practices. In fact, both Confucianism and Taoism stress on orthopraxy (right actions) over orthodoxy (right beliefs). Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)116 In The Analects, Book II verse 13, it is said that Tzu-kung asked about the gentleman. The Master said, Ã¢â¬ËHe puts his words into action before allowing his words to follow his action. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Low (2008: 33) speaks of the Ã¢â¬Å"message Confucius impresses on us is that: As leaders, we need to act and behave as gentlemen. Ã¢â¬ And what more, he has added that Ã¢â¬Å"when virtue is practised, one enjoys a clear conscienceÃ¢â¬ (Low, 2008: 33). Confucianism also stresses on humanism, and more importantly on the value of love and compassion (Low, 2010). In a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personal conduct, (s)he is respectful. In his or her dealings with his or her staff, (s)he is considerate; in caring for the common peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare, (s)he is generously kind; and in dealing with all, (s)he is just (Low, 2008). Like Confucianism, Taoism also stresses on compassion (a typical right action), underscoring the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"weapons of war augur evil. Even things seem to hate themÃ¢â¬ ; besides, Ã¢â¬Å"to achieve more for others, enlarge your heartÃ¢â¬ (Low, 2009: 33). 2. 5 Open And Continuing Canons Each does not have a closed canon, each continues to be interpreted, written and included in their respective canons. However, unlike Taoism, familiarity with the Confucian canon was one of the main requirements of the civil service examinations in traditional China. 2. 6 No Fixed Religious Services But Anywhere At Anytime, It Can Be Practiced Interestingly too or in fact, very convenient, both have no fixed religious services and can be practiced anywhere, from shrines and temples to private studies and mountain peaks. Seen from this angle, there is much freedom and it is life and in living, praying and living in oneness (life itself is a prayer! ). The good thing is that they are without rituals or strict conformity of attending masses or prayer sessions in fixed days as evident in some of the other major religions. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)117 2. 7 Benevolence And Compassion Interestingly, Low (2008a: 67) has highlighted that one of the classic leadership sins or mistakes is that of Ã¢â¬Å"being callous to the needs of the othersÃ¢â¬ or lacking in empathy or worse, compassion. For both Confucius and Lao Tzu, leaders need to be benevolent. Low (2008b) has highlighted that the Confucian business owner/leadership, with its high task and high relationship, is seen as caring and the leader builds the bond with the employees. In the Confucian sense, being benevolent or kind, a characteristic element of humanity, is an part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s talents. Like Confucianism, Taoism also considers a worthy person as a benevolent person, and in the former, a benevolent person enjoys longevity (ren cher shou). Leaders need to be compassionate and empathetic. Both Confucianism and Taoism preach and stress on compassion. Compassion is, in fact, one of Lao TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s three treasures (Low, 2009; Wu, 1990). Such a belief and action is particularly vital. And it is, in fact, excellent when it comes to leading people since the compassionate leaders practice servant leadership, desiring overall little or nothing for themselves, but empathetically showing and acting with care and concern more for the people and their needs (Low, 2010, 2009; 2008). Figure 1: A List of Commonalities Of Confucianism And Taoism In Pursuit of the Tao Close to Nature And Harmony Wanting to Be Happy And Being Positive Right Actions Are Critical Open And Continuing Canons No Fixed Religious Services But Anywhere At Anytime, It Can Be Practiced Benevolence And Compassion Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)118 3 3. 1 The Key Differences Human Living and Spirituality Confucianism, on one hand, stresses on attaining Tao in human living. The writings of Confucius deal primarily with individual morality and ethics. (also see Low, 2008c Ã¢â¬â Confucian ethics and business responsibility to the various stakeholders), and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers. Confucianism is not, properly speaking, a religion but it is more of a way of behaving so that one does the right things (http://ancienthistory. mrdonn. org/Confucius. html). Confucianism stresses on the Rectification of Names, and each needs to fulfill each personÃ¢â¬â¢s respective roles and responsibilities. For Confucius, Ã¢â¬Å"therefore, the superior man examines his heart that there may be nothing wrong there, and that he may have no cause for dissatisfaction with himself. Ã¢â¬ (Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter XXXIII. , Verse 2, cited in Confucius, 1915). A Confucian thus believes that an ordered society is what people should strive for. In that sense, it is more this-worldly, and is a way of life rather than a religion. Nonetheless, the wisdom of the Old Master can (still) help us to obtain spiritual happiness in the modern world, to get used to the daily routine of our lives, and to find the personal bearings that tell us where we are (Yu Dan, 2009: 11). Taoism, on the other hand, focuses on achieving the Tao, basically on the spiritual aspects of life; and it is other-worldly and can be considered as a religion. [Some have, however, argued that Taoism is not a religion. Taoism is a philosophy, a way of looking at life and a way of thinking about things. Taoists believe if one looks at life and think about things in the right way, one will be much happier -http://ancienthistory. mrdonn. org/Taoism. html. ] This author however feels that Taoism stresses on the spiritual aspects of life and it is mystical too Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Tao can be talked about, but not the Eternal Tao, Names can be named, but not the Eternal Name. As the origin of heaven-and-earth, it is nameless. As Ã¢â¬Ëthe MotherÃ¢â¬â¢ of all things, it is nameable. Ã¢â¬ (Tao te ching, verse 1, Wu, 1990: 1). It is also said that one of the head-twisty things about the Tao de ching is that it never specifically defines The Way. The book itself is a series of verses, poems, Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)119 and riddles, stressing on control but not dominance, fluidity but not ambivalence, and mystery but not confusion. Nonetheless, it is full of wise, helpful nuggets to assist human beings in living and attaining spiritual contentment; examples include Ã¢â¬Å"embrace simplicity, put others first. Desire littleÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"weapons are the bearers of bad news; all people should detest themÃ¢â¬ (Lao Tzu, Verses 19 and 31, Tao de ching; McDonald; 2009). To elaborate, one should live simply while being healthily aware and refusing greed and lust. After all, as in the Chinese proverb, one should not Ã¢â¬Å"add legs to the snake after one has finished drawing itÃ¢â¬ . And not to complicate things, simplicity indeed makes oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life easier, more convenient and pleasant. And next, all of us should value or treasure peace and harmony. ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ The Analects, depending heavily on analogy and metaphor, is, on the other hand, very clear and concrete on attaining the way in terms of human living, and for the overall good of humankind. For Confucius, there is to be good family living; and peace and harmony as well as the attainment of good community living. For Lao Tzu, there is to be oneness with nature and the Universe or Heaven. 3. 2 Practicality And Esotericism. Confucianism is very practical, suited for pragmatic human living. In The Analects, Book XI, verse 12: Ã¢â¬Å"Chi-lu asked how the spirits of the dead and the gods should be served. The Master said, Ã¢â¬ËYou are not able even to serve man. How can you serve the spirits? Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËMay I ask about death? Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËYou do not understand even life. How can you understand death? Ã¢â¬â¢ For Confucianism, in business, corporate social responsibility (CSR) should always be there: what is taken from the community is returned through donations, charity and other assistances rendered to the poor and needy. In his study, Low (2008c) has indicated that the Confucian Golden Rule and Confucian ethics in the context of the stakeholder theory, showing how businesses can be ethical while being caring and compassionate for its stakeholders. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)120 In Taoism, the goal of each believer is to become one with the Tao, a force that flows through all life. The concept of a personified deity is foreign to them; perhaps there is the concept of an impersonal god. The practitioners do not pray because there is no god to hear the prayers or to act upon them; believers seek answers to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems through inner meditation and outer observation. [In that sense, Taoism can be seen as esoteric, abstract or not easy to be understood. ] Taoists believe in the duality of the universe, symbolized by yin-yang, but oneness is to be attained through inner meditation, balance and harmony. Taoist practitioners believe in nourishing life and the spirit by energizing or getting chi (energy), meditating and being in oneness with the Tao. 3. 3. Groupings, Categorization and Non-Categorization/ Dualities And Oneness Because of ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ Rectifications of Names (Fung, 1948), the role each person needs to play appears to have a lot of categorization (groupings); and love starts from loving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and family members first; and then extend out to love oneÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbors and further extend to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s community and society. In Taoism, there is this seeking or search for Oneness and no dualities or differentiation between animals and humans or humans and nature. Let me explain. First of all, humans need to widen their mind and horizons. Humans often live and experience reality conceptually. We do not see things afresh and anew every time we look at them; instead, we create categories and let things fall into them, which is an easy and more convenient way of dealing with the world. Apart from the smaller things, such as defining a flower as a rose, a vase as a Chinese Ming vase, an antique, or a person as a teacher, there are wider categories (groupings or types) under which everyone lives, including religions, beliefs, ideologies, and systems of government. Each category or type supplies us a level of psychological certainty and saves usÃ from the effort of constantly challenging our own beliefs. Take for example, humans often divide animals into Ã¢â¬ËfavoritesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËpetsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëdomestic/ farm animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ so that we can feel alright loving one and eating or consuming the other. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)121 Mindlessness, on one hand, is when there is no focus and occurs when humans are conditioned or at least not know that the categories to which they subscribe are categories and have accepted them as their own without really thinking, understanding and/or experiencing it. Breaking away from, reassessing old groupings and being able to see outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s (individual/ in-box) subjective context (seeing the wider, collective/ out-of-the-box/ objective context) is mindfulness. We should indeed be perceiving things in un-habitual ways, and thus weÃ¢â¬â¢ll grow. On the other hand, when we are mindful, we will not be stereotyping and boxing things up, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be in line with nature as things are transient and they also change. When we are mindful, we are breaking away from our egos and categories and in fact get closer to nature or Tao, the Universe. Then again, one can also argue that both Confucianism and Taoism are, in a way, common in terms of the pursuits of the Tao (as said under the Commonalities of Confucianism and Taoism section), and the differences lies in their starting points, from subjectivity to universality for Confucianism and from mindlessness to mindfulness for Taoism. 3. 4 Filial Piety And Nature Confucianism urges the people to respect their parents and the old. They are to take care of their parents, maintaining good links with them while upholding the value of filial piety (xiao). In the Confucian language, filial piety (xiao) means serving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s living parents, and thus, resulting in the five (5) vital relationships in the Confucian Teaching, that is, the relationships between: i. ii. iii. iv. v. the royalty/prince and subject. father and son. older and younger brother. husband and wife. friend and friend. Filial piety embraces those attitudes of respect for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s seniors and a reciprocal attitude of love and affection on the seniors part to the junior. After the death of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, it involves religious obligations in ceremonial worship. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)122 Taoism, on the other hand, emphasizes Ã¢â¬Ëgoing with the flowÃ¢â¬â¢, maintaining good links and in oneness with the Nature, Heaven or the Universe. In Taoism, we learn from nature Ã¢â¬â a flower falls even though we love it, and weed grows even though we do not love it. We love the animals and creatures around us. And we do not interfere yet we are contented; after all, there is a season and reason for everything; and everything has its place; just let it be. By accepting things as they are, we become impartial or unaffected. It is good to follow the natural order (Low, 2010b). In following nature, we are in harmony with nature. There is no or little stress. We sit quietlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ do nothing. Spring comes and grass grows by itself. Besides, a known yet significant point to note is that nature does not hurry yet everything is achieved. 3. 5 Rites And Beyond Rites Or Rigidity Versus Flexibility Confucius introduced rites/terms of reference to ensure people comply with the system. This is somewhat rigid; however, on many occasions, he would allow people to modify, change and improve the rites accordingly. For example, on one occasion, Confucius highlighted that according to the traditional rites, ceremonial hats were made out of hemp; these days people make them out of silk, he approved of the common practice since this, after all, is more economical Ã¢â¬ (Confucius Ã¢â¬â The Analects, Chapter IX, verse 3). Lao Tzu was flexible in his teachings, and he did not introduce or follow any system such as the rites proposed by Confucius. He instead encouraged people to lead a simple life, following the natural ways of living and remain detached to the world like a newly born infant who has not yet learnt to smile. (Tao Te Ching, Verse 20). To analyze further, we can say that people in the world consists of different personalities, and some people are so used to or prefer a structure, a sort of checklist or a religious (structured) approach to doing things (In Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: MBTI terms: Thinking; Judging Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)123 Types) while others may prefer a less structured approach to doing things (In Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: MBTI terms: Feeling; Intuitive/ Perceiving Types). They like to move, adjusting along the way, rather than an immediate structured, ordered way, all the way through till the end or completion. In Confucianism, rites give structure, stability and continuity. Rites are necessary since they provide the basis of practices as well as more importantly, standards. Confucius also stressed the need for rituals and music. For Confucius, Ã¢â¬Ësacrifice as if presentÃ¢â¬â¢ is taken to mean Ã¢â¬Ësacrifice to the gods as if the gods were present. Ã¢â¬â¢ The Master, however, said, Ã¢â¬ËUnless I take part in a sacrifice, it is as if I did not sacrifice. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Confucius Ã¢â¬âThe Analects, Chapter III verse 12). Taoism goes beyond rites, Ã¢â¬Ëgoing with the flowÃ¢â¬â¢; and like the quality of water, flexibility is also applied. Chairman Mao Zedong once quoted Lao Tzu, Ã¢â¬Å"Fortune lies in misfortune and vice versa. Ã¢â¬ In other words, the Taoist practitioner is often mindful of the fact that in every misfortune lies the seed of fortune, and in every fortune lies the seed of misfortune; and given a situation, (s)he is to flexibly apply the Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ approach. 3. 6 Learning And Unlearning. In Confucianism, learning and education is indeed critical (Low, 2010; 2010a). Confucius stressed very much on learning and he himself set an example of continuous learning throughout his life. Ã¢â¬Å"The Master said, Ã¢â¬ËAt fifteen, I set my heart on learning; at thirty I took my stand; at forty I came to be free from doubts; at fifty I understood the Decree of Heaven; at sixty my ear was attuned; at seventy I followed my heartÃ¢â¬â¢s desire without overstepping the line. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Confucius Ã¢â¬â The Analects, Chapter II, verse 4). Confucius stressed on learning; learning prevents one from being narrow-minded. For Confucius, it is important for individuals to learn. He used learning to correct his mistakes and improve himself, and he in fact considered Junzi (a gentleman/lady) as a person eager to study. Confucius said, Ã¢â¬Å"The gentleman seeks neither a full belly nor a comfortable home. He is quick in Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)124 action but cautious in speech. He goes to men possessed of the Way to be put right. Such a man can be described as eager to learn. Ã¢â¬ Overall then, the Confucians see it as bad to eat oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fill all day long, and do nothing to nourish the mind. Ã¢â¬ (Low, 2010, 2008). On the other hand, Taoism stresses on unlearning (perhaps even undoing bureaucracy or procedures), and here it can be seen as being simple is both wise and good. Lao Tzu encouraged people to unlearn their learning for then they would not have any anxiety (Tao Te Ching, Verse 20). Simplicity is indeed embraced and it is wise not to overemphasize or complicate things (Low, 2009). To the Taoists, the ConfucianÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of knowledge has divided people and things (creating distinctions and differences between men and animals/ other creatures) as well as having complicated life; they also argue that it can also cause contention for profits and fame. Life is indeed simple, and it is good not to over do things; when eating just eat and when sleeping, just sleep; and in living, just live. More so, one cannot learn with an occupied mind, one cannot fill a full cup unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s emptied; one should not overanalyze too. Lao Tzu speaks of Ã¢â¬Å"stop thinking and end your problemsÃ¢â¬ (Verse 20, Tao de ching). Figure 2: shows a summary of key differences between Confucianism and Taoism Human Living and Spirituality Practicality And Esotericism Groupings, Categorization and Non-Categorization/ Dualities And Oneness Filial Piety And Nature Rites And Beyond Rites Or Rigidity Versus Flexibility Learning And Unlearning 4 Conclusion Both Confucianism and Taoism, having been home-grown in China and developed in almost total isolation from the rest of the world, have played a major role in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s three thousand Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net. Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)125 years of history. And perhaps the world and the people can learn, apply and adapt the finer points and wisdom of Confucianism and Taoism into their lives. And to paraphrase Yu Dan (2009: 187), wherever we are, we can let the spiritual power of Confucianism and/or Taoism combine with our present laws and rules, fusing seamlessly together to become an essential part of our lives, to let each of us build for ourselves a truly worthwhile life. This is surely the ultimate significance of Confucius and/or Taoism in our lives today. References Confucius (1915) (Contributors: Dawson, Miles Menander) The ethics of Confucius: The sayings of the Master and his disciples upon the conduct of Ã¢â¬Å"The Superior ManÃ¢â¬ . G. P. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons: New York. Fung, Y. L. (1948) A short history of Chinese philosophy, The Free Press: New York. Lau, D. C. (1979) Confucius The Analects (Lun Yu), The Penguin Books: England. Li, Y. Y. (1996) Chinese traditional values and characteristics of Chinese health behavior. (in Chinese) Chinese psychology and therapy, Laureate Book Co. : Taipei. Low, K. C. P. (forthcoming) Ã¢â¬ËConfucian ethicsÃ¢â¬â¢ in Idowu, S. O. (ed. ), (2011) Encyclopedia of corporate social responsibility, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Low, K. C. P. (2010) Ã¢â¬ËValues make a leader, the Confucian perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢, Insights to a changing world journal, Volume 2010 Issue 2, p. 13 Ã¢â¬â 28. Low, K. C. P. (2010a) Ã¢â¬ËTeaching and Education: the ways of ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢, Educational research, December 2010 Special issues, p. 681- 686. Franklin Publishing Company www. franklinpublishing. net Conflict Resolution Negotiation (Volume 2011 Issue 4)126 Low, K. C. P. (2010b) Ã¢â¬Å"Zen and leadership Ã¢â¬â Growing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership excellenceÃ¢â¬ , Insights to a changing world, Volume 2010 Issue 1, p. 1 10. Low, K. C. P. (2009) Ã¢â¬ËLao TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s three treasures, leadership organizational growthÃ¢â¬â¢, Leadership organizational management journal, Volume 2009, Issue 3, p 27 Ã¢â¬â 36. Low, K. C. P. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËValue-based leadership: Leading, the Confucian wayÃ¢â¬â¢, Leadership organizational management journal, Volume 2008 Issue 3, p. 32 Ã¢â¬â 41. Low, K. C. P. (2008a) Ã¢â¬ËLeadership thoughts to ponder Ã¢â¬â Some classic sins of leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢, Leadership organizational management journal, Volume 2008 Issue 4, p. 65 75. Low, K. C. P. (2008b) Ã¢â¬ËFather leadership and small businesses in Singapore Ã¢â¬â Case revisitedÃ¢â¬â¢, Leadership and organization management journal (LOM), Vol. 2008 Issue 3, p. 68 82. Low, K. C. P. (2008c) Ã¢â¬ËConfucian ethics social responsibility Ã¢â¬â The golden rule responsibility to the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢, Ethics critical thinking journal, Volume 2008 Issue 4, p. 46 54. Low, K. C. P. and Ang, S. L. (2010), Ã¢â¬ËTraditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)Ã¢â¬â¢, Chinese Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 3 (Dec 2010) p. 84 90, (Published Online http://www. SciRP. org/journal/cm). Low, K.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Fitzgerald Flapper Which came first, the flapper or the Fitzgerald flapper? This question may prove as difficult as its proverbial counterpart. But it is a question well worth asking in an effort to examine the flapper, a cultural icon of the 1920s. This new woman heralded an end to the traditional Victorian woman, as well as the relatively new Gibson girl. But where did she come from? And what was Fitzgerald's contribution to the creation of such an icon? Fitzgerald's short story Bernice Bobs Her Hair and novel This Side of Paradise will be used to make such an assessment. Finally, one must ask how the flapper, in turn, contributed to Fitzgerald's career, for the good and the bad. Although the flapper may have guaranteed the success of This Side of Paradise and earned Fitzgerald the position of spokesman for a generation, it may have also stifled the progression of his work and confused critics for years to come. First, it would be helpful to establish a working definition of the flapper, prior to Fitzgerald. Coined in England, the flapper was used to describe a somewhat awkward, fledgling-type girl, in the throws of budding womanhood ("Flappers in the Roaring Twenties"). She is still learning how to move in her body, gangly and thin. Another source puts forth a very different definition of the flapper. This definition, found in "Mrs. Stratton of Oak Knoll" asserts that a flapper is English slang for a society girl who has made her debut and hasn't found a husband ("F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary"). She is an old maid of sorts, gone to seed. The first of these two definitions seems the more likely origin of the Fitzgerald flapper. Prior to World War I, most women in the America still behaved and dr... ...e to adapt to a writer's changing objectives. Works Cited Bruccoli, Matthew J. The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York, NY: Scribner, 1989 Bryer, Jackson. The Critical Reputation of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Bibliographical Study. USA: Archon Books, 1967 Fryer, Sarah Beebe. Fitzgerald's New Women: Harbingers of Change. Ann Arbor and London: UMI Research Press, 1988. Kitch, Carolyn. The Girl on the Magazine Cover. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001 Prigozy, Ruth. The Cambridge Companion to F. Scott Fitzgerald. UK and USA: Cambridge University Press, 2002 "Flappers in the Roaring Twenties." www.about.com. http://history1900s.about.com/library/weekly/aa022201a.htm "F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary: University of South Carolina." www.sc.edu. January 2002. www.sc.edu/fitzgerald/index.html
Monday, January 13, 2020
Job Title Costumer-Service Representative Agent Job Summary Serves customers and sellers in half. Com by providing information and services. Acts as a connector from costumers, sellers and the employee in half. Com towards on questions, deal with and help resolve any customer complaints, and improving the costumers satisfaction related to service and activities in half. Com. Maintaining the relationship between costumers and sellers accordance with the company's guidelines and policies. Relationship Reports to : Supervisor of Customer ServiceSupervises : Costumer Service staff in e-Bays facility In Salt Lake City Works with : Employee who has responsibilities on database and human-resources worker External Relationship : Buyers and Sellers Qualifications Education : Diploma or bachelor's degree In field Communication, Business, and Management Ability Communicate clearly and professionally, both verbally and in writing Strong detail orientation and communication/listening skills. Has a pleasant, patient and friendly attitude Strong decision making and analytical abilities Skills Basic computer and technological knowledge Administrative procedures and information processingCustomer relationship principles and practices Essential Responsibilities Resolves product or service problems by clarifying the customer's complaint; determining the cause of the problem: selecting and explaining the best solution to solve the problem Questions 1. Does the day diary include sufficient information ? Yes, The day diary provides sufficient information describing how Mr.. Ryan Job summary and Job description of Bill Ryan does in a day. 2. Identify the specific Information In the article that you found useful The specific information that I found useful in the article is about the mechanism of hones and emails. . What additional information do you require ? How would that information help you? Additional information that I need is detail information about the Ryan supervisor and ho w is reporting and whether he is reporting directly to team leader, supervisor, and any other person. I need information about Ryan supervisor structure to write his reporting responsibilities. I also need information about how he communicates with the co-worker and supervisor either through email or telephone or any process and how much salary of Bill Ryan each months.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
From an evolutionary perspective, populations change over time. The size and composition of a populations gene pool is key to maintaining genetic diversity. Gene pool change in a small population because of chance is known as genetic drift. The founder effect is a case of genetic drift in which a small population of a limited number of individuals breaks off from a larger population. The effect on the genetic makeup of a population can be quite profound, as the prevalence of disease can increase. The lower the number of individuals involved, the more that the breakaway population may be impacted. This effect continues until the population size is large enough for errors from generation to generation to become minimal. If the population continues to be isolated, the effects can persist. Key Takeaways Change in a small populations gene pool due to chance is known as genetic drift.The founder effect is a case of genetic drift caused by a small population with limited numbers of individuals breaking away from a parent population.The occurrence of retinitis pigmentosa in the British colony on the Tristan da Cunha islands is an example of the founder effect.The prevalence of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in the Amish in Eastern Pennsylvania is another example of the founder effect. Founder Effect Examples If a small population breaks off from a larger population to colonize an island, for example, the founder effect can occur. If some of the colonizers are carriers or homozygous recessive, the prevalence of the recessive allele can be quite dramatic in the small population versus the larger parent population. When a new generation has alleles distributed at random, with a large enough sample size, we can expect that the gene pool of the new generation will roughly represent the gene pool of the prior generation. Wed expect a certain distribution of traits in a given population, when that population is sufficiently large. When a population is small, the gene pool from generation to generation might not be accurately represented. This is due to sampling error because of the small size of the population. Sampling error refers to the disproportion of results in a small population or sample. Retinitis Pigmentosa Example Not all genes have a simple dominant recessive occurrence. Others are polygenic traits and can be due to changes in a number of genes. For example, in the early 1800s a number of individuals migrated to the Tristan da Cunha islands to form a British colony. At least one of the colonists appears to have been a carrier and had a recessive allele for retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is a relatively rare disorder where the cells in the retina are lost or break down resulting in loss of sight. Individuals who are homozygous for the allele have the disease. By some estimates, in the 1960s, of the 240 residents in the colony, four had the disorder and at least nine others were carriers. This is much more prevalent than would be expected based on the rarity of retinitis pigmentosa in larger populations. Amish Example Eastern Pennsylvania is home to the Amish, who provide a striking example of the founder effect. It is estimated that about 200 individuals that immigrated from Germany founded their community. The Amish typically marry from within their own community and are isolated, so genetic mutations tend to persist. For example, polydactyly, possessing extra fingers or toes, is a common symptom of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. The syndrome is a rare disorder that also is characterized by dwarfism and sometimes congenital heart defects. Due to the founder effect, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is much more prevalent among the Amish.Ã Ã Founder effect in animals and plants While the movement of human populations can provide examples of the founder effect, the effect is not limited to humans. It can occur in animals or plants as well, whenever small populations break off from larger ones. The founder effect can have a profound impact on small populations due to genetic drift. The impact can persist when the population remains isolated so that genetic variation is minimal. Inherited diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome are examples of the consequences of the founder effect. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Genetic Drift and the Founder Effect.Ã¢â¬ PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/3/l_063_03.html.Reece, Jane B., and Neil A. Campbell. Campbell Biology. Benjamin Cummings, 2011.